1 Zeller: Weisse Blicke, pp. 35–36.


2 ibid., p. 31.


3 ibid., p. 51.


4 ibid., p. 17.


5 Zeller: Bilderschule, p. 7.


6 Nederveen Pieterse: White on Black, pp. 193–194.


7 Zeller: Bilderschule, p. 17.


8 English version published in 1991.


9 cf. Hutter: Mangel an Sensibilität. Citation translated from the German original.


10 cf. Haruna: (K)eine zeitlose Kunst.


11 Mason: Black and White in Ink, pp. 150 ff.


12 Storyteller Group / SACHED Trust (ed.): Mhudi, front cover jacket text.


13 Between 1990 und 2000, the Storyteller Group published over thirty comic books (ca. 10 million copies). cf. Schneider: Life in Bubbles, p. 222.


14 Mason: Ten Years After, pp. 287–288.


15 ibid., pp. 288–289.


16 The library of the Basler Afrika Bibliographien has a number of such awareness comics.


17 Hillenbach: Authentisierungsstrategien, pp. 139–144.


18 After the success of Aya, since 2010, Abouet published seven more volumes with short stories about Akissi, who was introduced in Aya as the younger sister of the protagonist. The drawings were done by Mathieu Sapin.


19 Hoeness-Krupsaw: Ivorian Bonus, p. 162.


20 ibid., pp. 169–170.


21 cf. Harris: “Sex and the City”, p. 119.


22 Abouet / Oubrerie: Aya de Yopougon, Vol. 1, p. 51.


23 UNESCO (ed.): Lamu Old Town.


24 Tempo, No. 303, 25.07.1976, p. 2. According to the accompanying text, this caricature represented the internal enemy. The imagery should help “our people” to recognize and fight Xiconhocas and all they represent. Xiconhoca was never attributed to a creator, but according to Sahlström (Political Posters, pp. 61ff.) José Freire, João Craveirinha and Agostinho Milhafre collaborated on the character.


25 Buur: Xiconhoca, p. 31.


26 ibid., p. 40.


27 Nielsen: Antithesis without Thesis, p. 4.


28 Lent: African Cartooning, p. 8.


29 Mason: What’s so Funny?, p. 211.


30 cf. The Walt Disney Company: Infographic.


31 cf. for example the column of the online magazine Afropunk, which partially summarises this controversy about the film: Chutel: Black Panther Has Some Impressive Superpowers.


32 Well known is Umberto Eco’s criticism of Superman Comics, where he writes about Superman’s lack of political consciousness as typical of the genre. cf. Eco: Il mito di Superman.


33 cf. Schikowski: Der Comic, p. 93.


34 cf. for example Lamarr Cunningham: The Absence of Black Supervillains in Mainstream Comics.


35 cf. Solinas: Dave Gibbons Interview.


36 Illustrator Gibbons talks about some of the considerations behind the comic and the guidelines to the artists in: Solinas: Dave Gibbons Interview.


37 It went down in South African history as the Muldergate affair. cf. Worger: Afri-Comics Introduction.


38 Mighty Man was produced thanks to investors from the USA.


39 After the term that Umberto Eco uses in his Superman critique. Eco: Il mito di Superman, p. 253–260.


40 Duncan / Smith: Power of Comics, pp. 39–40.


41 ibid., p. 52.


42 Stores where one could buy cannabis, cf. ibid., p. 55.


43 ibid., p. 52.


44 Edited interview quote from Anton Kannemeyer and Conrad Botes in Botes’ Studio, Observatory Cape Town (6 February 2004). Cited in: Hannesen: Bitterkomix, pp. 13–16.


45 From an interview with Anton Kannemeyer and Conrad Botes in Botes’ Studio, Observatory Cape Town (6 February 2004). In: ibid., p. 20.


46 From an interview with Anton Kannemeyer (31 October 2018).




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