„The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile“. Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle

  • Language: English
  • 292 pages
  • Illustrations, maps, index
  • ISSN: 2296-6986
  • ISBN:
  • Print: 978-3-905758-29-0
  • PDF: 978-3-90575852-8
Johann Alexander Müller

„The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile“. Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle


The role played by Botswana in various southern African liberation struggles has previously been neglected in historical studies. The country’s politics of support and mobilisation early on in Namibia’s struggle for independence from South Africa proved crucial for the formative period of both nation states. Botswana’s difficult and contradictory position as neighbour of the South African apartheid state and colonial power in Namibia are carefully dealt with, as are the challenges faced by the fragile Namibian refugee networks and liberation movements, SWANU and SWAPO, operating in Botswana for decades.

“The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile” deals with a crucial phase of nationalism and transnational politics during the period of southern African decolonisation at the height of South Africa’s diplomatic and military aggression throughout the region.

Johann Alexander Müller obtained his PhD from the University of Freiburg i. Br. for this study. He was a researcher at  the Arnold Bergstraesser Institute and currently works in the field of media development cooperation at Deutsche Welle Akademie in Bonn.

Beyond the Confines of the Nation: Another Dimension of Liberation Politics in Southern Africa. An Introduction by Reinhart Kössler

1 Research Overview and Theoretical Framework

2 Historical Basis

3 Methodology

4 Government Attitude

5 The Role of Residents and Organisations in Botswana



8 The Makunda Refugees and Nudo

9 Conclusion


„Johann Müller’s account represents an important and, in some ways, a pioneering inroad into precisely this field …. His description conveys some of the foundations of regional co-operation that today are incorporated into the SADC. … SADC was already, avant la lettre, embodied in a figure such as Daniel Munamava, one of the main actors in Müller’s account, along with many other prominent Namibians, which include the first and secend presidents of independent Namibia.“

Reinhart Kössler, Freiburg i.Br.

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